IVF with donor sperm
The use of sperm donor allows successfully overcome the male infertility factor, as well as conceive a child in the absence of a sexual partner of a woman. In the latter case, the IVF with sperm donor is offered only to women who have diagnosed infertility. If not, it is possible to perform the artificial insemination.
Sperm donor may be a relative of the couple or their friend. In addition, it is possible to use the material of an anonymous donor. Most clinics offering IVF services recommend the second option to their clients, as it is safer in terms of subsequent social interactions.
Indications for IVF with donor sperm
- Absolute male infertility — the inability to obtain high-quality sperm, even for IVF using the ICSI protocol. Such conditions arise in the case when testicular infertility develops during cryptorchism, aplasia of the germ cell epithelium, consequences of orchitis, genetic abnormalities, testicles injuries or castration.
- If a woman’s partner has genetic syndromes with a high risk of transmitting to offspring, as well as if the partner’s family has genetic diseases linked to sex chromosomes.
- Numerous unsuccessful IVF attempts with partner sperm. In this case, morphologically sperm cells may look normal, but the quality of the obtained embryos could be low, and they simply will not survive.
Requirements for a sperm donor
Currently, potential sperm donors are undergoing serious screening. Sperm donor can be the male meeting the following criteria:
- Age from 18 to 34 years.
- Absence of psychiatric and somatic disorders.
- The absence of significant flaws in appearance.
- Absence of genetic pathologies. Conclusion of genetic is mandatory.
- Good sperm quality.
Candidates to donors undergo a thorough medical examination. The first step is a laboratory analysis of sperm to confirm its fertility. Then a full examination is performed to exclude physical and psychiatric diseases, tests on genetic pathologies and infections. The cryotolerance of the sperm, i.e. its resistance to freezing and thawing is checked. Only after all conclusions, a male is allowed to donate the sperm.
Retrieved sperm is cryopreserved and sent to a quarantine for at least 6 months. After this period, the donor will be re-examined for infections, and if tests results are negative, this sample can be used for artificial insemination or fertilization. This procedure applies to all donors, regardless of how long they donated the biomaterial before.
Donor sperm application
Before using donor material, the couple becomes familiar with the characteristics of donors whose sperm is in the bank at this time. After selecting a donor, all necessary documents are processed.
As for the technical side, the IVF procedure for women has no difference from the usual protocol. The patient undergoes the stimulation of superovulation, ovocyte retrieval and the embryos transfer. The only difference is that vitrified sperm is used for fertilization. At the appointed time the sperm is thawed, the viability of the sperm is evaluated and fertilization is performed at the same day. After transfer, standard hormone therapy for IVF and control of pregnancy are performed within a specified time period.